Anonymous: Chine de commande (s.d.); Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

In the 17th century, the Dutch East India Company (VOC, 1602-1800) made huge profits due to their monopoly position in the spice trade with Asia. Pepper, cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg turned the VOC into the richest company in the world.
Initially, Chinese porcelain served as ballast to increase the stability of ships carrying the precious spice cargo. But porcelain was rare in Europe and people were enchanted by this exotic product. Rich Dutch families ordered porcelain to be decorated with their coat of arms or familiar scenes from the European art world. This expensive, custom-made porcelain was called “Chine de commande”.
Many Chinese decorators were unfamiliar with European faces and scenes, which would at times lead to curious results. This teapot with Crucifixion (Passion scenes were a popular subject for Chine de commande) presents us with rather unconventional-looking Jesus and Maries.
The success of Chinese porcelain in the Netherlands inspired earthenware producers in Delft to imitate the product (with Chinese-oriented decorations). The second image shows a Delftware vase dating from around 1670. Today, Delftware is seen and presented as being typically Dutch.